One of the best places to learn about the requirements for a plant is on the Plant Label. Plant labels include recommendations for how much light a plant needs
Here are few descriptions.
Full Sun means a least 6 hours of direct sunlight each day.
Roses; lilacs; ninebark; Most vegetables need full sun
Partial Shade means at least 3-6 full hours of dappled/ direct sun per day. Plants which prefer this may struggle with direct sun.
Summer sweet, viburnum, holly, arborvitae, hostas
Light Shade is less than three hours of dappled sunlight each day.
Celandine poppy, Columbine, Virginia bluebells, Ferns
Heavy Shadehas no sunlight because of tree canopy or buildings block sun.
Pachysandra; ginger, jack-in-pulpit, Goatsbeard, Woodland Phlox